资料分享:小升初英语句型语法分析

一.祈使句

  Be careful!
  Please open your books.
  Let me have a try.
  Don’t open the door.
口诀:祈使句无主语,主语you常省去,动词原形当谓语,句首加don’t变否定。
 
  二.感叹句:用what 和how引导,what 修饰的是名词,how修饰的是副词或形容词。
  结构:What + a/an + 形+可数名词单数+(主语+谓语)!
  What+形+可数名词复数/不可数名词+(主语+谓语)!
  How+ 形/副 +(主语+谓语)!
  _____a fine day it is! (What)
  ______useful work we have done! (What)
  ______careful my mother is! (How)
  _______delicious bread it is! (What)
 
  做题技巧:从右往左看,先划掉感叹号前的主语和谓语,剩下的是名词就用what,剩下的是形容词或者副词就用how。当然名词还需辨别可数不可数来确定是否有冠词a/an。
 
  三.疑问句
  疑问句有一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句,反意疑问句。
  1. 一般疑问句:需要用yes或no来回答。结构:助动词+主语+谓语
  Have you locked the door? Yes, I have.
Can you play the piano? Yes, I can.
 
  2. 特殊疑问句:对句子中某一特殊部分提问的疑问句。
  结构:特殊疑问词+ 一般疑问句
  特殊疑问词:“非常6+1”,即6个W开头的疑问词(what/who/which/where/when/why)和1个H(How)开头的疑问词。
  ★how 与what的其他用法
  ⑴How much money do you want?
  How many pictures did you buy?
  How fast does he drive?
  How often do you go abroad?
  How many times do you go swimming in summer?
  How soon will you come back?
  How long have you been here?
  (2)What number are you?
  What color is your coat?
  What time is it?
  What day is it today?
 
  3. 选择疑问句:提供两种或两种以上的情况,供对方选择的。选择疑问句不能用Yes和No回答,其答案只能是问句中提到的两个选择之一,如果考试中出现选择疑问句的选择题,选项中的Yes和No都要排除.
  Do you like tea or coffee? I like coffee.
  Do you speak English or French? I speak English
Who runs faster, Tom or John? Tom.
 
  4.反意疑问句:附在陈述句之后,对陈述句所说的事实或观点提出疑问。
  结构:助动词/情态动词+主语, 前肯后否,前否后肯。
  小升初英语考试中,一般以填空或者选择的形式,让孩子把反义疑问句后半句补充完整,从而来考察孩子对反义疑问句的掌握。
  He likes playing football, doesn’t he?
  He can speak English, can’t he?
  ★其他类型反意疑问句的用法
  (1)There be 变成be there
  There are 3 dogs, aren’t there?
  Th here will be a meeting tomorrow, won’t there?
  (2)祈使句后的反意疑问句:肯定祈使句的反意疑问句通常用will you 或won’t you, 否定祈使句的反意疑问句只用will you。
  Pass me a book, will you?
  Have another cup of tea, won’t you?
  Don’t watch too much TV, will you?
  ★★Let’s go shopping, shall we?
  Let us go now, will you?
  (3)陈述部分用 no, no one, nothing, nobody, never, few, little, seldom, hardly, rarely,等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。
  Birds rarely build nests in our garden, do they?
  He hardly says such words, does he?
  (4)陈述句的主语是不定代词everything, something, anything, nothing时,其后的反意疑问句主语用it。
  Everything is right, isn’t it?
  Nothing is in the box, is it?
  (5)陈述句的主语是不定代词everybody, everyone, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nobody, no one, none时,其后的反意疑问句主语用they。
  Everybody has got the new books, haven’t they?
  Everyone knows his job, don’t they?
  Anyone can do that, can’t they?
  No one is interested in math, are they?
  ★不定代词做主语的反义疑问句,指物的一般用it反问,指人的用they反问。
  (6)陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑问部分用didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。
  She usted to climb the mountain, usedn’t she?/didn’t she?
  (7)陈述部分有had better + do, 疑问句部分用hadn't you?
  You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?
  (8) 含有宾语从句的主从复合句的反意疑问句中,简短问句一般反映主句中主、谓之间的关系。
  She said that they were happy, didn’t she?
  You think that you are funny, don’t you?___________?
  但如果主句是I think, I believe等时,则简短问句反映的是that从句中主语与谓语之间的关系。
  I think (that) he is serious, isn’t he?
  I don’t think (that) he is serious, is he?
(9) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。 This is important, isn't it? He is unhappy, isn’t he?
 
四、肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,如: 
I’m a student. She is a doctor. He works in a hospital.
There are four fans in our classroom. He will eat lunch at 12:00. I watched TV yesterday evening.
 
 五、否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,如:I’m not a student. She is not (isn’t) a doctor.
  He does not (doesn’t) work in a hospital. There are not (aren’t) four fans in our classroom. 
  He will not (won’t) eat lunch at 12:00. I did not (didn’t) watch TV yesterday evening.
  ☆注意☆ 小结:否定句主要是在肯定句的基础上加上了否定词 “not”。有动词be的句子则“not”加在be后面,可缩写成“isn’t,aren’t”,但am not 一般都分开写。没有动词be的句子则要先在主要动词的前面加上一个助动词(do,does,did),然后在它后面加上“not”,你也可以把它们缩写在一起如“don’t , doesn’t , didn’t )。这三个助动词要根据人称和时态来选择,其中“does”只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而“did”只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用“did” 。
 
加强:
一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用“yes”,或“no”来回答。
  如:Are you a student? Yes, I am / No, I’m not.
  Is she a doctor? Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.
  Does he work in a hospital? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.
  Are there four fans in our classroom? Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t.
  Are you going to buy a comic book tonight? Yes, I am. / No, I am not. (Yes, we are. / No, we aren’t.)
  Will he eat lunch at 12:00? Yes, I will. / No, I will not(won’t).
  Are they swimming? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
  Did you watch TV yesterday evening? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
  ☆注意☆ 小结:一般疑问句是在肯定句的基础上,
  ①把动词be调到首位,其他照写,末尾标点符号变成问号即可。
  ②没有动词be的句子则要在句首加上一个助动词(do,does,did)再把紧跟在后面的动词变回原形,末尾标点符号变成问号即可。
  这三个助动词也要根据人称和时态来选择,其中“does”只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而“did”只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用“did” 。一般疑问句有个重要的原则就是问和答要一致,即问句里的第一个单词(助动词)和简略答句里的这个词是一致的。
  4、特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)开头引导的句子。此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用“yes 、no”来回答。如:
  What is this? It’s a computer.
  What does he do? He’s a doctor.
  Where are you going? I’m going to Beijing.
  Who played football with y 
you yesterday afternoon? Mike.
  Which season do you like best? Summer.
  When do you usually get up? I usually get up at 6:30.
  Whose skirt is this? It’s Amy’s.
  Why do you like spring best? Because I can plant trees.
  How are you? I’m fine. / I’m happy.
  How did you go to Xinjiang? I went to Xinjiang by train.
  ☆其中how又可以和其他一些形容词连用组成特殊疑问词组用来提问,如: how many(多少(数量)), how much(多少(钱)), how tall(多高), how long(多长), how big(多大), how heavy(多重)
 
  例句:How many pencils do you have? I have three pencils.
  How many girls can you see? I can see four girls.
  How many desks are there in your classroom? There are 51.
 
  ☆小结:how many 用来提问可数名词的数量,主要有以上三种句式搭配,
  How many + 名词复数 + do you have? 你有多少……?
  How many + 名词复数 + can you see? 你能看见多少……?
  How many + 名词复数 + are there…? 有多少……? 

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